What is ultra supercritical power generation
Ultra supercritical is a concept applied to thermal power. Thermal power generation we are familiar with is to use coal and other fuels to burn in the boiler, heat the water into high-temperature and high-pressure steam, drive the turbine to rotate at high speed, and then drive the generator to generate electricity. According to the principle of thermodynamics, the higher the pressure and temperature of steam, the higher the power generation efficiency. At a standard atmospheric pressure, the boiling point of water from liquid to gas is 100 ℃. To increase the temperature of water vapor, increase the pressure to increase the boiling point temperature. At the pressure of 22.115 MPa and the temperature of 374.15 ℃, the density of water vapor is the same as that of liquid water, reaching the critical state; When the temperature and pressure exceed the critical value, the water will be in a supercritical state. Using supercritical steam to generate electricity is called supercritical power generation technology, and ultra supercritical power generation is a higher stage than supercritical power generation technology.
At present, there is no international unified standard for the division of ultra supercritical and supercritical. In the project "ultra supercritical coal-fired power generation technology" of China's "863 Plan", the ultra supercritical parameters are set as pressure ≥ 25 MPa and temperature ≥ 580 ℃.
What is the super capacity of ultra supercritical power generation
First, it is advanced and reliable, with independent intellectual property rights and localized equipment.
In fact, ultra supercritical power generation is not a new concept. Since the 1950s, the United States, Britain, Germany, Japan and other developed countries have started the research, development and application of ultra supercritical power generation technology. China started late and began to build supercritical units only in 1992. However, taking advantage of the huge domestic market, many companies have made long-term efforts and have possessed independent R & D capabilities and relevant intellectual property rights, realizing the localization of ultra supercritical units. In November2006, Huaneng Zhejiang Yuhuan Power Plant designed by China energy construction group was put into operation, which is China's first megawatt ultra supercritical generating unit project. So far, China has been developing million kilowatt ultra supercritical high-efficiency power generation technology for 15 consecutive years. The lowest coal consumption for power supply can reach 264 grams per kilowatt hour, which is at the world's advanced level. At present, the technology has been popularized nationwide, accounting for 26% of the total installed capacity of coal-fired power.
Second, it has a deep foundation and is based on China's coal based energy endowment.
China's power development has strongly supported the rapid economic growth, and thermal power is indispensable. In 2021, China's total power generation will reach 8534.25 billion kwh, of which the thermal power generation will be 5805.87 billion kwh, accounting for 68% of the total power generation. China's fossil energy resources are characterized by "rich coal, lack of oil and less gas", and coal-fired power accounts for the highest proportion in thermal power. As a large manufacturing country, if China wants to develop the real economy, the energy job must be firmly in its own hands. The coal-based energy endowment determines that coal-fired power will continue to play an important role in ensuring China's energy and power security for a long time, which means that we cannot easily abandon coal-fired power.
Third, it has a promising future and stands on the wind of the times to achieve the dual carbon goal.
As we all know, although coal-fired power has the disadvantages of large pollution and high emissions, there are many problems in the stability and consumption of clean energy power generation. Coal-fired power is the main role of China's energy security. How to generate more electricity with less coal to save resources, improve efficiency and reduce emissions has become an urgent problem to be solved. Ultra supercritical power generation technology is the clean and efficient utilization of coal resources. It can be used to build new units and transform old units to "eat and squeeze" the coal.
The dual goals of carbon peaking and carbon neutralization are an energy revolution, which is pushing mankind from industrial civilization to ecological civilization. The super capability of ultra supercritical power generation technology lies in that it integrates the success factors of favorable climate, favorable environment and favorable people. As one of the main technologies for energy conservation and emission reduction of thermal power, ultra supercritical power generation technology will promote the high-quality development of China's energy industry.